Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Diseases

Rosa Vona, Lucrezia Gambardella, Camilla Cittadini, Elisabetta Straface, Donatella Pietraforte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MS) represents worldwide public health issue characterized by a set of cardiovascular risk factors including obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and impaired glucose tolerance. The link between the MS and the associated diseases is represented by oxidative stress (OS) and by the intracellular redox imbalance, both caused by the persistence of chronic inflammatory conditions that characterize MS. The increase in oxidizing species formation in MS has been accepted as a major underlying mechanism for mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of protein and lipid oxidation products, and impairment of the antioxidant systems. These oxidative modifications are recognized as relevant OS biomarkers potentially able to (i) clarify the role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the etiology of the MS, (ii) contribute to the diagnosis/evaluation of the disease's severity, and (iii) evaluate the utility of possible therapeutic strategies based on natural antioxidants. The antioxidant therapies indeed could be able to (i) counteract systemic as well as mitochondrial-derived OS, (ii) enhance the endogenous antioxidant defenses, (iii) alleviate MS symptoms, and (iv) prevent the complications linked to MS-derived cardiovascular diseases. The focus of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the role of OS in the development of metabolic alterations characterizing MS, with particular regard to the occurrence of OS-correlated biomarkers, as well as to the use of therapeutic strategies based on natural antioxidants.
Original languageEnglish
JournalOxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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