Biomechanics of the natural, arthritic, and replaced human ankle joint

Alberto Leardini, John J. O'Connor, Sandro Giannini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The human ankle joint complex plays a fundamental role in gait and other activities of daily living. At the same time, it is a very complicated anatomical system but the large literature of experimental and modelling studies has not fully described the coupled joint motion, position and orientation of the joint axis of rotation, stress and strain in the ligaments and their role in guiding and stabilizing joint motion, conformity and congruence of the articular surfaces, patterns of contact at the articular surfaces, patterns of rolling and sliding at the joint surfaces, and muscle lever arm lengths. The present review article addresses these issues as described in the literature, reporting the most recent relevant findings.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8
JournalJournal of Foot and Ankle Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 6 2014


  • Ankle complex
  • Arthrodesis
  • Articular surfaces
  • Gait analysis
  • Joint mobility
  • Joint replacement
  • Joint stability
  • Ligaments
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rear-foot
  • Subtalar
  • Tibiotalar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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