Bladder cancer

Filippo De Braud, Massimo Maffezzini, Vito Vitale, Paolo Bruzzi, Gemma Gatta, William F. Hendry, Cora N. Sternberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bladder cancer is the second most frequent tumour of the urogenital tract. Tobacco smoke has been shown to increase the risk of bladder cancer two- to fivefold as well as the exposure to metabolites of aniline dyes and other aromatic amines. Seventy-five per cent of bladder cancers are superficial at initial presentation, limited to the mucosa, submucosa, or lamina propria. Recurrence rates after initial treatment are 50-80%, with progression to muscle-invading tumour in 10-25%. In muscle-invading bladder cancers, there is a 50% risk of distant metastases. Surgery is the mainstay of standard treatment both in the form of transurethral endoscopic resection, mainly for superficial disease, and in the form of open ablative surgery with urinary diversion for muscle invasive disease. Endovesical administration of BCG has been employed after endoscopic resection as the most effective agent for both prophylaxis of disease recurrence and progression from superficial to invasive disease. The accepted treatment for muscle infiltrative disease is radical cystectomy. Response rates to combination chemotherapy regimens of up to 70% in patients with advanced metastatic disease have led to an investigation of its use for locally invasive disease in combination with conventional modalities of treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-106
Number of pages18
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2002


  • Bladder cancer
  • Carcinogens
  • Urogenital tract

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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