OBJECTIVE - Previous studies have found that high insulin sensitivity predicts weight gain; this association has not been confirmed. Our aim was to systematically analyze metabolic predictors of spontaneous weight changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - In 561 women and 467 men from the Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease (RISC) cohort (mean age 44 years, BMI range 19-44 kg/m2, 9% impaired glucose tolerance) followed up for 3 years, we measured insulin sensitivity (by a euglycemic clamp) and β-cell function (by modeling of the C-peptide response to oral glucose and by acute insulin response to intravenous glucose). RESULTS - Insulin sensitivity was similar in weight gainers (top 20% of the distribution of BMI changes), weight losers (bottom 20%), and weight stable subjects across quartiles of baseline BMI. By multiple logistic or linear regression analyses controlling for center, age, sex, and baseline BMI, neither insulin sensitivity nor any β-cell function parameter showed an independent association with weight gain; this was true in normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and whether subjects progressed to dysglycemia or not. Baseline BMI was significantly higher in gainers (26.1 ± 4.1 kg/m2) and losers (26.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2) than in weight stable subjects (24.8 ± 3.8 kg/m2, P <0.0001 for both gainers and losers). Baseline waist circumference (or equivalently, BMI or weight) was a positive, independent predictor of both weight gain and weight loss (odds ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.12-1.97]) in men and (1.67 [1.28-2.12]) in women. In men only, better insulin sensitivity was an additional independent predictor of weight loss. CONCLUSIONS - Neither insulin sensitivity nor insulin secretion predicts spontaneous weight gain. Individuals who have attained a higher weight are prone to either gaining or losing weight regardless of their glucose tolerance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism