Bone control of muscle function: International Journal of Molecular Sciences

G. Battafarano, M. Rossi, F. Marampon, S. Minisola, A. Del Fattore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Bone and muscle represent a single functional system and are tightly connected to each other. Indeed, diseases characterized by alterations of muscle physiology have effects on bone remodeling and structure and vice versa. Muscle influence on bone has been deeply studied, and recent studies identified irisin as new molecule involved in this crosstalk. Muscle regulation by bone needs to be extensively investigated since in the last few years osteocalcin was recognized as a key molecule in the bone–muscle interaction. Osteocalcin can exist in two forms with different degrees of carboxylation. The undercarboxylated form of osteocalcin is a hormone released by the bone matrix during the osteoclast bone resorption and can bind its G-protein coupled receptor GPRC6A expressed in the muscle, thus regulating its function. Recently, this hormone was described as an antiaging molecule for its ability to regulate bone, muscle and cognitive functions. Indeed, the features of this bone-related hormone were used to test a new therapeutic approach for sarcopenia, since injection of osteocalcin in older mice induces the acquirement of physical abilities of younger animals. Even if this approach should be tested in humans, osteocalcin represents the most surprising molecule in endocrine regulation by the skeleton. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInt. J. Mol. Sci.
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Bone
  • Muscle
  • Osteocalcin
  • androgen receptor
  • brain derived neurotrophic factor
  • collagen type 1
  • CXCL1 chemokine
  • dentin matrix protein 1
  • estrogen receptor
  • fibroblast growth factor 21
  • fibroblast growth factor 23
  • follistatin
  • G protein coupled receptor
  • glutamic acid
  • interleukin 15
  • interleukin 6
  • interleukin 8
  • leukemia inhibitory factor
  • myostatin
  • osteocalcin
  • osteoclast differentiation factor
  • osteoprotegerin
  • sclerostin
  • somatomedin
  • transforming growth factor beta1
  • vasculotropin
  • vitamin D receptor
  • GPRC6A protein, human
  • Article
  • bone control
  • bone density
  • bone mass
  • bone matrix
  • bone metabolism
  • bone mineralization
  • bone remodeling
  • carboxylation
  • cell differentiation
  • energy metabolism
  • hormonal regulation
  • human
  • immobilization
  • mechanotransduction
  • microgravity
  • muscle function
  • muscle hypertrophy
  • muscle strength
  • musculoskeletal function
  • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • nonhuman
  • osteoclastogenesis
  • osteolysis
  • physical activity
  • protein expression
  • sarcopenia
  • sex difference
  • signal transduction
  • weight bearing
  • animal
  • bone
  • exercise
  • metabolism
  • osteoclast
  • physiology
  • skeletal muscle
  • Animals
  • Bone and Bones
  • Bone Resorption
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • Muscle, Skeletal
  • Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena
  • Osteoclasts
  • Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled


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