Bone damage in type 2 diabetes mellitus

V. Carnevale, E. Romagnoli, L. D'Erasmo, E. D'Erasmo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This review focuses on the mechanisms determining bone fragility in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite bone mineral density (BMD) is usually normal or more often increased in these patients, fracture incidence is high, probably because of altered bone "quality". The latter seems to depend on several, only partly elucidated, mechanisms, such as the increased skeletal content of advanced glycation end-products causing collagen deterioration, the altered differentiation of bone osteogenic cells, the altered bone turnover and micro-architecture. Disease duration, its severity and metabolic control, the type of therapy, the presence or absence of complications, as like as the other known predictors for falls, are all relevant contributing factors affecting fracture risk in T2DM. In these patients the estimate of fracture risk in the everyday clinical practice may be challenging, due to the lower predictive capacity of both BMD and risk factors-based algorithms (e.g. FRAX).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1151-1157
Number of pages7
JournalNutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014


  • Bone mineral density
  • Bone quality
  • Clinical risk factors
  • Fractures
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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