Patients with cystic fibrosis awaiting lung transplantation for end-stage respiratory failure have high prevalence of reduced bone mineral density and fragility fracture. Suboptimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels could significantly contribute to the development of cystic fibrosis-related bone disease.
INTRODUCTION: The assessment of the prevalence of cystic fibrosis-related bone disease (CFBD) and its associated risk factors in young adults with cystic fibrosis (CF) awaiting lung transplantation for end-stage respiratory failure.
METHODS: Clinical characteristics, bone mineral density (BMD), the parameters of calcium metabolism, including vitamin D (25OHVitD) levels, and the presence of fragility fractures were evaluated in 42 CF patients (24 females, age 34.0 ± 8.4 years) consecutively referred as lung transplant candidates.
RESULTS: Mean 25OHVitD levels (54.9 ± 26.2 nmol/L) were below the reference range and hypovitaminosis D (25OHVitD < 75 nmol/L) was found in 34 patients (81%) and daily calcium intakes (median 550 mg/day) were lower than recommended. A BMD below the expected range for age (Z-score of - 2.0 or lower) and at least one prevalent fragility fracture were found in 22 patients (52.4%) and 18 patients (45.2%), respectively. The coexistence of low BMD and the presence of fracture was observed in 13 patients (31.0%). In these patients, the prevalence of nephrolithiasis was higher than in the remaining ones (p = 0.046). The presence of kidney stones was associated with a worse bone status and with severe vitamin D deficiency. In the whole sample, femoral BMD Z-scores were directly correlated with albumin-adjusted calcium (p < 0.05) and 25OHVitD levels (p < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the improvement of CF care, CFBD is still highly prevalent in young adults awaiting lung transplantation for end-stage CF. Suboptimal 25OHVitD levels could significantly contribute to the development of CFBD. The presence of nephrolithiasis could be an additional warning about the need for a careful evaluation of bone health in CF patients.
- Bone Density/physiology
- Cross-Sectional Studies
- Cystic Fibrosis/blood
- Lung Transplantation
- Middle Aged
- Osteoporotic Fractures/blood
- Respiratory Insufficiency/blood
- Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives
- Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
- Young Adult