BACKGROUND: Incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in haploidentical bone marrow (BM) transplants using posttransplantion cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is low, whereas GVHD using mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) ranges between 30% and 40%. METHODS: To evaluate the effect of stem cell source in haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy, we analyzed 451 patients transplanted for acute myeloid leukemia or acute lymphoblastic leukemia reported to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. RESULTS: BM was used in 260 patients, and PBSC were used in 191 patients. The median follow-up was 21 months. Engraftment was lower in BM (92% vs 95%, P < 0.001). BM was associated with a lower incidence of stage II-IV and stage III-IV acute GVHD (21% vs 38%, P ≤.01; and 4% vs 14%, P <.01, respectively). No difference in chronic GVHD, relapse, or nonrelapse mortality were found for PBSC or BM. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 55% versus 56% (P =.57) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 49% versus 54% (P =.74) for BM and PBSC, respectively. On multivariate analysis, PBSC were associated with an increased risk of stage II-IV (hazard ratio [HR], 2.1; P <.001) and stage III-IV acute GVHD (HR, 3.8; P <.001). For LFS and OS, reduced intensity conditioning was the only factor associated with treatment failure (LFS: HR, 1.40; P =.04) and relapse (HR, 1.62; P =.02). CONCLUSION: In patients with acute leukemia in first or second remission receiving haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy, the use of PBSC increases the risk of acute GVHD, whereas survival outcomes are comparable. Cancer 2018;124:1428-37.
- acute graft-versus-host disease
- acute leukemia
- haploidentical transplantation
- posttransplantation cyclophosphamide
- stem cell source
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research