Brain conditioning is instrumental for successful microglia reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Alessia Capotondo, Rita Milazzo, Letterio Salvatore Politi, Angelo Quattrini, Alessio Palini, Tiziana Plati, Stefania Merella, Alessandro Nonis, Clelia Di Serio, Eugenio Montini, Luigi Naldini, Alessandra Biffi

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Abstract

The recent hypothesis that postnatal microglia are maintained independently of circulating monocytes by local precursors that colonize the brain before birth has relevant implications for the treatment of various neurological diseases, including lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), for which hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is applied to repopulate the recipient myeloid compartment, including microglia, with cells expressing the defective functional hydrolase. By studying wild-type and LSD mice at diverse time-points after HCT, we showed the occurrence of a short-term wave of brain infiltration by a fraction of the transplanted hematopoietic progenitors, independently from the administration of a preparatory regimen and from the presence of a disease state in the brain. However, only the use of a conditioning regimen capable of ablating functionally defined brain-resident myeloid precursors allowed turnover of microglia with the donor, mediated by local proliferation of early immigrants rather than entrance of mature cells from the circulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15018-15023
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume109
Issue number37
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 11 2012

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