Purpose: To describe and classify the range of brain injuries present at prenatal, in-utero magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in cotwin survivors of monochorionic (MC) twin pregnancies complicated by single intrauterine death (SIUD). Materials and Methods: This retrospective, observational study from six tertiary fetal medicine centers that perform tertiary-level prenatal in-utero MR studies reviewed cases in which prenatal in-utero MR imaging had shown a brain injury in a surviving co-twin of a twin pregnancy with a MC component complicated by SIUD. Results: Forty-two surviving MC twins were described. The primary distinction of brain abnormalities was into nonfocal and focal lesions. The nonfocal lesions included periventricular leukomalacia (group 1; two fetuses), generalized encephalomalacia (group 2; nine fetuses), posterior encephalomalacia (group 3; seven fetuses), and bilateral parasagittal and perisylvian injury (group 4; three fetuses). The focal lesions included nonhemorrhagic lesions (group 5; 14 fetuses) and hemorrhagic lesions (group 6; seven fetuses). Focal brain lesions were more likely to be found in the surviving MC pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) (odds ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.3, 18.5; P = .01) and in fetuses that underwent an obstetric intervention (odds ratio, 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 1.8, 23.6; P = .006). Conclusion: Brain injury of the surviving co-twin after SIUD in MC pregnancies is usually of ischemic origin and spares the brainstem and cerebellum. Focal brain lesions are more frequent in pregnancies complicated by TTTS or in those where an intervention has been performed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging