Despite chemotherapy and novel androgen-receptor signalling inhibitors (ARSi) have been approved during the last decades, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) remains a lethal disease with poor clinical outcomes. Several studies found that germline or acquired DNA damage repair (DDR) defects affect a high percentage of mCRPC patients. Among DDR defects, BRCA mutations show relevant clinical implications. BRCA mutations are associated with adverse clinical features in primary tumors and with poor outcomes in patients with mCRPC. In addition, BRCA mutations predict good response to poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, such as olaparib, rucaparib, and niraparib. However, concerns still remain on the role of extensive mutational testing in prostate cancer patients, given the implications for patients and for their progeny. The present comprehensive review attempts to provide an overview of BRCA mutations in prostate cancer, focusing on their prognostic and predictive roles.
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