Breast cancer heterogeneity

Caterina Fumagalli, Massimo Barberis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Breast tumor heterogeneity is a major challenge in the clinical management of breast cancer patients. Both inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity imply that each breast cancer (BC) could have different prognosis and would benefit from specific therapy. Breast cancer is a dynamic entity, changing during tumor progression and metastatization and this poses fundamental issues to the feasibility of a personalized medicine approach. The most effective therapeutic strategy for patients with recurrent disease should be assessed evaluating biopsies obtained from metastatic sites. Furthermore, the tumor progression and the treatment response should be strictly followed and radiogenomics and liquid biopsy might be valuable tools to assess BC heterogeneity in a non-invasive way.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1555
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2021


  • Breast cancer
  • Inter-tumor heterogeneity
  • Intra-tumor heterogeneity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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