Background: HIV-1 infection impairs cellular immunity, causing a detrimental effect on the natural course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV vaccination is less effective in HIV-1-infected patients. This study aimed to gain insight into HIV-1 infection with persistence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) defining chronic hepatitis B infection (CBI) after a primary infection and the possible associated factors.Setting: Division of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Hospital, Italy. Methods: This retrospective study analyzed HIV-1-infected patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis B infection (AHB) based on clinical or laboratory records. CBI was defined as a positive HBsAg result recorded >6 months after an AHB diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to assess factors (evaluated at AHB diagnosis) that were associated with CBI. Results: Of 63 HIV-1-infected patients with AHB, 23 (36.5%) developed CBI. On multivariate analysis, CBI risk was less likely in patients with HIV-RNA of >50 copies/mL (adjusted odds ratio = 0.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.001 to 0.58, P = 0.021). Dually acting antiretroviral treatment, including one or more drugs active against HIV/HBV (lamivudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir), seemed to be protective in terms of the clinical outcome of CBI (adjusted odds ratio = 0.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.01 to 1.02, P = 0.050). Among the 23 patients with CBI, 15 (65.2%) lost the hepatitis B e-antigen, while 11 (47.8%) had HBsAg seroclearance during follow-up. Conclusions: In HIV-1-infected subjects with AHB, the persistence of HBsAg seemed to occur frequently. Factors associated with a lower CBI risk were detectable HIV load and the use of dually acting antiretroviral treatment during AHB.
- acute hepatitis B
- chronic hepatitis B infection
- dually acting antiretroviral treatment
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases
- Pharmacology (medical)