Caesarean section on request: A comparison of obstetricians' attitudes in eight European countries

M. Habiba, M. Kaminski, M. Da Frè, K. Marsal, O. Bleker, J. Librero, H. Grandjean, P. Gratia, S. Guaschino, W. Heyl, D. Taylor, M. Cuttini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To explore the attitudes of obstetricians to performe a caesarean section on maternal request in the absence of medical indication. Design: Cluster sampling cross-sectional survey. Setting: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) associated maternity units in eight European countries. Population: Obstetricians with at least 6 months clinical experience. Methods: NICU-associated maternity units were chosen by census in Luxembourg, Netherlands and Sweden and by geographically stratified random sampling in France, Germany, Italy, Spain and UK. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Main outcome measures: Obstetricians' willingness to perform a caesarean section on maternal request. Results: One hundred and five units and 1530 obstetricians participated in the study (response rates of 70 and 77%, respectively). Compliance with a hypothetical woman's request for elective caesarean section simply because it was 'her choice' was lowest in Spain (15%), France (19%) and Netherlands (22%); highest in Germany (75%) and UK (79%) and intermediate in the remaining countries. Using weighted multivariate logistic regression, country of practice (P <0.001), fear of litigation (P = 0.004) and working in a university-affiliated hospital (P = 0.001) were associated with physicians' likelihood to agree to patient's request. The subset of female doctors with children was less likely to agree (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.20-0.42). Conclusions: The differences in obstetricians' attitudes are not founded on concrete medical evidence. Cultural factors, legal liability and variables linked to the specific perinatal care organisation of the various countries play a role. Greater emphasis should be placed on understanding the motivation, values and fears underlying a woman's request for elective caesarean delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)647-656
Number of pages10
JournalBJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006


  • Caesarean
  • Maternal request
  • Obstetricians' attitude

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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