Calcifying Matrix Vesicles and Atherosclerosis

Dimitry A Chistiakov, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Andrey V Grechko, Alexander N Orekhov

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Artery calcification is a well-recognized predictor of late atherosclerotic complications. In the intima media, calcification starts with apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the release of calcifying matrix vesicles with diameter of 0.5-15 μm that can be observed microscopically. In complicated plaques, calcification is generally less frequent. Calcifying vesicles are released by proatherosclerotic VSMCs into the collagen-rich matrix. The vesicles can penetrate into the intima media and protrude into the arterial lumen and thereby may represent a potential cause of atherothrombosis. In calcified fibrolipid plaques, the rate of calcification is increased but is followed with healing of a lesion rupture and exhibited by further erosion and/or intimal thickening. Generally, calcification directly correlates with the apoptosis of VSMCs and macrophages accompanied by the release of osteogenic matrix vesicles. This is a hallmark of atherosclerosis-related apoptosis of VSMCs that is commonly released in plaque stabilization.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7463590
JournalBioMed Research International
Volume2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Journal Article
  • Review

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