Calclosomes are intracellular organelles in HL-60 cells, neutrophils and various other cell types, characterized by their content of a Ca2+-binding protein that is biochemically and immunologically similar to calsequestrin (CS) from muscle cells. In subcellular fractionation studies the CS-like protein copurifies with functional markers of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) releasable Ca2+-store. These markers (ATP-dependent Ca2+-uptake and IP3-induced Ca2+-release) show a subcellular distribution which is clearly distinct from the endoplasmic reticulum and other organelles. In morphological studies, antibodies against rabbit skeletal muscle CS protein specifically stained hitherto unrecognized vesicles with a diameter between 50 and 250 nm. Thus both, biochemical and morphological studies indicate that the calsequestrin containing intracellular Ca2+-store, now referred to as the calciosome, is distinct from other known organelles such as endoplasmic reticulum. Calciosomes are likely to play an important role in intracellular Ca2+-homeostasis. They are possibly the intracellular target of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and thus the source of Ca2+ that is redistributed into the cytosol following surface receptor activation in non-muscle cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology