Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are emerging as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. CRMs include natural and synthetic compounds able to inhibit protein acetyltransferases, to interfere with acetyl coenzyme A biosynthesis or to activate (de)acetyltransferase proteins. These modifications mimic the effects of caloric restriction, which is associated with the activation of autophagy. Previous evidence demonstrated the ability of CRMs to ameliorate cardiac function and reduce cardiac hypertrophy and maladaptive remodeling in animal models of aging, mechanical overload, chronic myocardial ischemia, as well as in genetic and metabolic cardiomyopathies. In addition, CRMs were found to reduce acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. In many cases, these beneficial effects of CRMs appeared to be mediated by autophagy activation. In the present review, we discuss the relevant literature about the role of different CRMs in animal models of cardiac diseases, emphasizing the molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of these compounds and their potential future clinical application.