Canaloplasty is a relatively new non-penetrating surgery for the reduction of intraocular pressure in patients affected by glaucoma. The technique uses a microcatheter to perform a 360 º cannulation of Schlemm's canal and leaves in place a tension suture providing an inward distension. It aims to restore the physiological outflow pathways of the aqueous humour and is independent of external wound healing. Several studies have shown that canaloplasty is effective in reducing intraocular pressure and has a low rate of complications, especially compared with trabeculectomy, the gold standard for glaucoma surgery. Currently, canaloplasty is indicated in patients with open-angle glaucoma, having a mild to moderate disease, and the combination with cataract phacoemulsification may provide further intraocular pressure reduction. This article reviews canaloplasty indications, results and complications and analyses its outcomes compared with traditional penetrating and non-penetrating techniques.