Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1310-1324
Number of pages15
JournalAnti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Volume13
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Neoplasms
Immune System
Immunity
Immunologic Techniques
Opportunistic Infections
Stem Cell Transplantation
Adaptive Immunity
Innate Immunity
Immunotherapy
Immunosuppression
Longitudinal Studies
Blood Cells
Vaccination
Quality of Life
Recurrence
Drug Therapy
Survival
Growth

Keywords

  • Aging
  • B lymphocytes
  • Cancer
  • Dendritic cells
  • Epidemiology
  • Immune reconstitution
  • Immune system
  • Immunotherapy
  • Inflammaging
  • Monocytes/macrophages
  • NK cells
  • T lymphocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution. / Zanussi, Stefania; Serraino, Diego; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Berretta, Massimiliano; De Paoli, Paolo.

In: Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 13, No. 9, 2013, p. 1310-1324.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{9e84a1575623451fb54d788dc824a7f0,
title = "Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution",
abstract = "Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.",
keywords = "Aging, B lymphocytes, Cancer, Dendritic cells, Epidemiology, Immune reconstitution, Immune system, Immunotherapy, Inflammaging, Monocytes/macrophages, NK cells, T lymphocytes",
author = "Stefania Zanussi and Diego Serraino and Riccardo Dolcetti and Massimiliano Berretta and {De Paoli}, Paolo",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.2174/18715206113136660348",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "1310--1324",
journal = "Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry",
issn = "1871-5206",
publisher = "Bentham Science Publishers B.V.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cancer, aging and immune reconstitution

AU - Zanussi, Stefania

AU - Serraino, Diego

AU - Dolcetti, Riccardo

AU - Berretta, Massimiliano

AU - De Paoli, Paolo

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.

AB - Aging is a complex phenomenon involving multiple physiological functions. Among these, very important are the modifications induced in the immune system; these modifications may be related to cancer development, a disease of older people. We herein describe the age-dependent alterations observed in the various arms of the immune system. Both innate and adaptive immunity are compromised during aging, a condition where an inflammatory status contributes to promote immune suppression and tumour growth. Collectively, aging of the immune system may produce detrimental consequences on the response against tumours in old patients. In fact, preclinical studies and clinical observations in humans have demonstrated age-associated alterations in antitumor immunity. Immunological recovery of old patients after conventional chemotherapy (CT) has not been fully investigated, while several studies conducted in patients undergoing blood stem cell transplantation have demonstrated that a delayed immune reconstitution associated with older age results in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and risk of tumour relapse. Cellular immunotherapy and vaccination are becoming viable options for improving survival and quality of life of cancer patients targeting both the host defences and the tumour. The clinical experience in elderly patients is still in its infancy, but available data indicate that these approaches are feasible and promising. A key problem in the studies on aging, immunity and cancer is that it is difficult to distinguish changes related to age from those related to cancer-dependent immunosuppression, but independent from the age of the subject. Longitudinal studies on aged healthy and cancer persons and the use of new immunological techniques may be required to clarify these issues.

KW - Aging

KW - B lymphocytes

KW - Cancer

KW - Dendritic cells

KW - Epidemiology

KW - Immune reconstitution

KW - Immune system

KW - Immunotherapy

KW - Inflammaging

KW - Monocytes/macrophages

KW - NK cells

KW - T lymphocytes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84888223522&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84888223522&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2174/18715206113136660348

DO - 10.2174/18715206113136660348

M3 - Article

C2 - 24102279

AN - SCOPUS:84888223522

VL - 13

SP - 1310

EP - 1324

JO - Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

JF - Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

SN - 1871-5206

IS - 9

ER -