Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major cancer sites was observed in both sexes, and it is likely associated to an epidemiological transition. Moreover, the 5-year survival is below 50% for the main tumors and can be ascribed to a difficult access to cancer care and to an incomplete health care framework for cancer patients. Cancer Registry of Setif, Wilaya, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986. These data can test etiological hypotheses by means of epidemiological studies, in addition to being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance. Data are recorded by means of CanReg 5. This software is a specific tool for cancer registration, which is standardized to capture, control, and process data. CanReg 5 has been developed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) of Lyon. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the most recent decades. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly. A 2014-2020 Cancer Plan was instituted under the aegis of the president of the Algerian Republic in December 2012 in order to effectively fight cancer, which is also a heavy burden on the economy. In order to optimize the Cancer Plan, several key elements should be emphasized: 1) the advancement of cancer registries, 2) smoking prevention campaigns, and the implementation of the World Health Organization's fight against tobacco framework, and 3) permanent organized screening programs, supplemented by a strategy for early detection of prevalent cancers.
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