Cancer procoagulant in acute non lymphoid leukemia: Relationship of enzyme detection to disase activity

M. B. Donati, A. Falanga, R. Consonni, M. G. Alessio, R. Bassan, M. Buelli, L. Borin, L. Catani, E. Pogliani, L. Gugliotta, G. Masera, T. Barbui

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Blast cell extracts from patients with acute non lymphoid leukemia (ANLL) express cancer procoagulant (CP). This factor X (FX) activator is distinct from tissue factor (TF) in that it does not require factor VII (FVII) to trigger blood coagulation, it acts as a cysteine proteinase and is not present in normal mononuclear cells. To assess whether there is any relationship between the presence of CP and the status of the disease, ANLL patients have been studied at diagnosis, during remission, at relapse. The procoagulant activity in either the presence or absence of FVII and sensitivity to cysteine proteinase inhibitors were tested on cell extracts. Immunoreactivity was explored with an anti-CP polyclonal antibody. Data obtained in 91 newly-diagnosed ANLL patients (subtypes M1 to M5, FAB classification) confirmed the presence of CP in M1 to M4 groups (mean ± SE FVII-independent activity: M1 = 2.1 ± 0.7 unit/mg; M2 = 5.7 ± 1.7 unit/mg; M3 = 31.5 ± 8 unit/mg; M4 = 1.6 ± 1.2 unit/ mg); CP was absent in the M5 type. In eight patients analyzed in a subsequent phase of partial remission, specific activity had dropped from 26.9 ± 7.8 to 10.5 ± 4.0 unit/mg. Activity was virtually absent (0-0.05 unit/mg) in the bone marrow of 37 patients studied at complete remission. Bone marrow samples from six subjects tested at different intervals after complete remission were repeatedly negative for CP but became positive 2 to 5 months before relapse. Upon relapse, the FVII independent activity rose to 24.2 ± 8.2 unit/mg. These results suggest that CP activity may be closely associated with the presence of myeloid malignant cells in the bone marrow, a finding of potential relevance not only to the coagulation disorders of acute leukemia, but also to the early detection of blast cells in ANLL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11-16
Number of pages6
JournalThrombosis and Haemostasis
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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