Cantú syndrome versus Zimmermann-Laband syndrome: Report of nine individuals with ABCC9 variants

Fanny Kortüm, Marcello Niceta, Monia Magliozzi, Katja Dumic Kubat, Stephen P. Robertson, Angelica Moresco, Maria Lisa Dentici, Anwar Baban, Chiara Leoni, Roberta Onesimo, Maria Gabriela Obregon, Maria Cristina Digilio, Giuseppe Zampino, Antonio Novelli, Marco Tartaglia, Kerstin Kutsche

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Cantú syndrome (CS) is a rare developmental disorder characterized by a coarse facial appearance, macrocephaly, hypertrichosis, skeletal and cardiovascular anomalies and caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in ABCC9 and KCNJ8, encoding subunits of heterooctameric ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. CS shows considerable clinical overlap with Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS), a rare condition with coarse facial features, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, intellectual disability of variable degree, and hypoplasia or aplasia of terminal phalanges and/or nails. ZLS is caused by heterozygous gain-of-function variants in KCNH1 or KCNN3, and gain-of-function KCNK4 variants underlie the clinically similar FHEIG (facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual disability/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth) syndrome; KCNH1, KCNN3 and KCNK4 encode potassium channels. Within our research project on ZLS, we performed targeted Sanger sequencing of ABCC9 in 15 individuals tested negative for a mutation in the ZLS-associated genes and found two individuals harboring a heterozygous pathogenic ABCC9 missense variant. Through a collaborative effort, we identified a total of nine individuals carrying a monoallelic ABCC9 variant: five sporadic patients and four members of two unrelated families. Among the six detected ABCC9 missense variants, four [p.(Pro252Leu), p.(Thr259Lys), p.(Ala1064Pro), and p.(Arg1197His)] were novel. Systematic assessment of the clinical features in the nine cases with an ABCC9 variant highlights the significant clinical overlap between ZLS and CS that includes early developmental delay, hypertrichosis, gingival overgrowth, joint laxity, and hypoplasia of terminal phalanges and nails. Gain of K+ channel activity possibly accounts for significant clinical similarities of CS, ZLS and FHEIG syndrome and defines a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103996
JournalEuropean Journal of Medical Genetics
Volume63
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

Keywords

  • ABCC9
  • Cantú syndrome
  • Coarse face
  • Gain-of-function
  • Potassium channel
  • Zimmermann-Laband syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

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