Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder

Giampaolo Perna, Marco Battaglia, Anna Garberi, Cinzia Arancio, Angelo Bertani, Laura Bellodi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

119 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of a single inhalation of a 35% CO2/65% O2 gas mixture were examined in 71 patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and 44 normal control subjects. Compared with the placebo condition, inhalation of air, the CO2/O2 mixture elicited a clear anxiety reaction only in panic disorder patients, who experienced a sudden rise of subjective anxiety as well as of several panic symptoms. Respiratory symptoms and the fear of dying best distinguished the patients from the control subjects. Baseline anxiety was not the key factor in explaining this differential reaction. The clinical features of panic disorder (namely, frequency of panic attacks, agoraphobia, anticipatory anxiety, and duration of illness) were not significantly related to the response to the challenge test, suggesting that CO2 reactivity might be a trait marker of panic disorder.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-171
Number of pages13
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume52
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1994

Fingerprint

Panic Disorder
Carbon Dioxide
Oxygen
Anxiety
Agoraphobia
Inhalation
Panic
Fear
Gases
Air
Placebos

Keywords

  • agoraphobia
  • Carbon dioxide
  • panic attacks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Psychology(all)

Cite this

Perna, G., Battaglia, M., Garberi, A., Arancio, C., Bertani, A., & Bellodi, L. (1994). Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research, 52(2), 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(94)90085-X

Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder. / Perna, Giampaolo; Battaglia, Marco; Garberi, Anna; Arancio, Cinzia; Bertani, Angelo; Bellodi, Laura.

In: Psychiatry Research, Vol. 52, No. 2, 1994, p. 159-171.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Perna, G, Battaglia, M, Garberi, A, Arancio, C, Bertani, A & Bellodi, L 1994, 'Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder', Psychiatry Research, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 159-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(94)90085-X
Perna G, Battaglia M, Garberi A, Arancio C, Bertani A, Bellodi L. Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder. Psychiatry Research. 1994;52(2):159-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(94)90085-X
Perna, Giampaolo ; Battaglia, Marco ; Garberi, Anna ; Arancio, Cinzia ; Bertani, Angelo ; Bellodi, Laura. / Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder. In: Psychiatry Research. 1994 ; Vol. 52, No. 2. pp. 159-171.
@article{465f6e661d6d4a9fa100222858807abf,
title = "Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder",
abstract = "The effects of a single inhalation of a 35{\%} CO2/65{\%} O2 gas mixture were examined in 71 patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and 44 normal control subjects. Compared with the placebo condition, inhalation of air, the CO2/O2 mixture elicited a clear anxiety reaction only in panic disorder patients, who experienced a sudden rise of subjective anxiety as well as of several panic symptoms. Respiratory symptoms and the fear of dying best distinguished the patients from the control subjects. Baseline anxiety was not the key factor in explaining this differential reaction. The clinical features of panic disorder (namely, frequency of panic attacks, agoraphobia, anticipatory anxiety, and duration of illness) were not significantly related to the response to the challenge test, suggesting that CO2 reactivity might be a trait marker of panic disorder.",
keywords = "agoraphobia, Carbon dioxide, panic attacks",
author = "Giampaolo Perna and Marco Battaglia and Anna Garberi and Cinzia Arancio and Angelo Bertani and Laura Bellodi",
year = "1994",
doi = "10.1016/0165-1781(94)90085-X",
language = "English",
volume = "52",
pages = "159--171",
journal = "Psychiatry Research",
issn = "0165-1781",
publisher = "Elsevier Ireland Ltd",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Carbon dioxide/oxygen challenge test in panic disorder

AU - Perna, Giampaolo

AU - Battaglia, Marco

AU - Garberi, Anna

AU - Arancio, Cinzia

AU - Bertani, Angelo

AU - Bellodi, Laura

PY - 1994

Y1 - 1994

N2 - The effects of a single inhalation of a 35% CO2/65% O2 gas mixture were examined in 71 patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and 44 normal control subjects. Compared with the placebo condition, inhalation of air, the CO2/O2 mixture elicited a clear anxiety reaction only in panic disorder patients, who experienced a sudden rise of subjective anxiety as well as of several panic symptoms. Respiratory symptoms and the fear of dying best distinguished the patients from the control subjects. Baseline anxiety was not the key factor in explaining this differential reaction. The clinical features of panic disorder (namely, frequency of panic attacks, agoraphobia, anticipatory anxiety, and duration of illness) were not significantly related to the response to the challenge test, suggesting that CO2 reactivity might be a trait marker of panic disorder.

AB - The effects of a single inhalation of a 35% CO2/65% O2 gas mixture were examined in 71 patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia and 44 normal control subjects. Compared with the placebo condition, inhalation of air, the CO2/O2 mixture elicited a clear anxiety reaction only in panic disorder patients, who experienced a sudden rise of subjective anxiety as well as of several panic symptoms. Respiratory symptoms and the fear of dying best distinguished the patients from the control subjects. Baseline anxiety was not the key factor in explaining this differential reaction. The clinical features of panic disorder (namely, frequency of panic attacks, agoraphobia, anticipatory anxiety, and duration of illness) were not significantly related to the response to the challenge test, suggesting that CO2 reactivity might be a trait marker of panic disorder.

KW - agoraphobia

KW - Carbon dioxide

KW - panic attacks

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0028358651&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0028358651&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/0165-1781(94)90085-X

DO - 10.1016/0165-1781(94)90085-X

M3 - Article

VL - 52

SP - 159

EP - 171

JO - Psychiatry Research

JF - Psychiatry Research

SN - 0165-1781

IS - 2

ER -