Cardiac catheterization and postoperative acute kidney failure in congenital heart pediatric patients

Paolo Bianchi, Giovanni Carboni, Giorgia Pesce, Giuseppe Isgrò, Concetta Carlucci, Alessandro Frigiola, Alessandro Giamberti, Marco Ranucci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe complication of cardiac operations in pediatric patients. Angiography with the exposure to contrast media is a risk factor for ARF. In the present study, we explored the association between timing of angiography, dose of contrast media, and the incidence of ARF after cardiac operations in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Angiographic data and other covariates were collected in 277 patients aged ≤12 years receiving angiography and cardiac operations during the same hospital stay. Renal outcome was assessed according to the pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage score (pRIFLE). RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven (64%) patients suffered some degree of postoperative renal dysfunction, and 55 (20%) had ARF (pRIFLE stage Failure). Patients with ARF received a significantly (P <0.001) larger dose of iodine contrast media (4.6 ± 2.6 g/kg) with respect to the other patients (2.8 ± 2.2 g/kg), with a relative risk increase for ARF of 31% per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg at the univariate analysis. A multivariable risk model demonstrated that the risk for ARF is 20 times higher in patients aged younger than 2 years and 3 times higher in case of postoperative low cardiac output. Within this model, the iodine dose on angiography is confirmed as an independent risk factor for ARF, with a relative risk increase for ARF of 16% per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Angiography before cardiac surgery is an important risk factor for ARF in pediatric patients. Being a modifiable risk factor, the contrast media dose should be limited to the lowest possible value, avoiding large doses of iodine which, together with other factors (age and postoperative low cardiac output), concur in the determinism of postoperative ARF.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)455-461
Number of pages7
JournalAnesthesia and Analgesia
Volume117
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2013

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Cardiac Catheterization
Acute Kidney Injury
Pediatrics
Iodine
Angiography
Contrast Media
Low Cardiac Output
Kidney
Age Factors
Wounds and Injuries
Thoracic Surgery
Length of Stay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

Cite this

Cardiac catheterization and postoperative acute kidney failure in congenital heart pediatric patients. / Bianchi, Paolo; Carboni, Giovanni; Pesce, Giorgia; Isgrò, Giuseppe; Carlucci, Concetta; Frigiola, Alessandro; Giamberti, Alessandro; Ranucci, Marco.

In: Anesthesia and Analgesia, Vol. 117, No. 2, 08.2013, p. 455-461.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bianchi, Paolo ; Carboni, Giovanni ; Pesce, Giorgia ; Isgrò, Giuseppe ; Carlucci, Concetta ; Frigiola, Alessandro ; Giamberti, Alessandro ; Ranucci, Marco. / Cardiac catheterization and postoperative acute kidney failure in congenital heart pediatric patients. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2013 ; Vol. 117, No. 2. pp. 455-461.
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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe complication of cardiac operations in pediatric patients. Angiography with the exposure to contrast media is a risk factor for ARF. In the present study, we explored the association between timing of angiography, dose of contrast media, and the incidence of ARF after cardiac operations in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Angiographic data and other covariates were collected in 277 patients aged ≤12 years receiving angiography and cardiac operations during the same hospital stay. Renal outcome was assessed according to the pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage score (pRIFLE). RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven (64{\%}) patients suffered some degree of postoperative renal dysfunction, and 55 (20{\%}) had ARF (pRIFLE stage Failure). Patients with ARF received a significantly (P <0.001) larger dose of iodine contrast media (4.6 ± 2.6 g/kg) with respect to the other patients (2.8 ± 2.2 g/kg), with a relative risk increase for ARF of 31{\%} per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg at the univariate analysis. A multivariable risk model demonstrated that the risk for ARF is 20 times higher in patients aged younger than 2 years and 3 times higher in case of postoperative low cardiac output. Within this model, the iodine dose on angiography is confirmed as an independent risk factor for ARF, with a relative risk increase for ARF of 16{\%} per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Angiography before cardiac surgery is an important risk factor for ARF in pediatric patients. Being a modifiable risk factor, the contrast media dose should be limited to the lowest possible value, avoiding large doses of iodine which, together with other factors (age and postoperative low cardiac output), concur in the determinism of postoperative ARF.",
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AU - Bianchi, Paolo

AU - Carboni, Giovanni

AU - Pesce, Giorgia

AU - Isgrò, Giuseppe

AU - Carlucci, Concetta

AU - Frigiola, Alessandro

AU - Giamberti, Alessandro

AU - Ranucci, Marco

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N2 - BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe complication of cardiac operations in pediatric patients. Angiography with the exposure to contrast media is a risk factor for ARF. In the present study, we explored the association between timing of angiography, dose of contrast media, and the incidence of ARF after cardiac operations in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Angiographic data and other covariates were collected in 277 patients aged ≤12 years receiving angiography and cardiac operations during the same hospital stay. Renal outcome was assessed according to the pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage score (pRIFLE). RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven (64%) patients suffered some degree of postoperative renal dysfunction, and 55 (20%) had ARF (pRIFLE stage Failure). Patients with ARF received a significantly (P <0.001) larger dose of iodine contrast media (4.6 ± 2.6 g/kg) with respect to the other patients (2.8 ± 2.2 g/kg), with a relative risk increase for ARF of 31% per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg at the univariate analysis. A multivariable risk model demonstrated that the risk for ARF is 20 times higher in patients aged younger than 2 years and 3 times higher in case of postoperative low cardiac output. Within this model, the iodine dose on angiography is confirmed as an independent risk factor for ARF, with a relative risk increase for ARF of 16% per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Angiography before cardiac surgery is an important risk factor for ARF in pediatric patients. Being a modifiable risk factor, the contrast media dose should be limited to the lowest possible value, avoiding large doses of iodine which, together with other factors (age and postoperative low cardiac output), concur in the determinism of postoperative ARF.

AB - BACKGROUND: Acute renal failure (ARF) is a severe complication of cardiac operations in pediatric patients. Angiography with the exposure to contrast media is a risk factor for ARF. In the present study, we explored the association between timing of angiography, dose of contrast media, and the incidence of ARF after cardiac operations in pediatric patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. Angiographic data and other covariates were collected in 277 patients aged ≤12 years receiving angiography and cardiac operations during the same hospital stay. Renal outcome was assessed according to the pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of function, End stage score (pRIFLE). RESULTS: One hundred seventy-seven (64%) patients suffered some degree of postoperative renal dysfunction, and 55 (20%) had ARF (pRIFLE stage Failure). Patients with ARF received a significantly (P <0.001) larger dose of iodine contrast media (4.6 ± 2.6 g/kg) with respect to the other patients (2.8 ± 2.2 g/kg), with a relative risk increase for ARF of 31% per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg at the univariate analysis. A multivariable risk model demonstrated that the risk for ARF is 20 times higher in patients aged younger than 2 years and 3 times higher in case of postoperative low cardiac output. Within this model, the iodine dose on angiography is confirmed as an independent risk factor for ARF, with a relative risk increase for ARF of 16% per each incremental iodine dose of 1 g/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Angiography before cardiac surgery is an important risk factor for ARF in pediatric patients. Being a modifiable risk factor, the contrast media dose should be limited to the lowest possible value, avoiding large doses of iodine which, together with other factors (age and postoperative low cardiac output), concur in the determinism of postoperative ARF.

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