The normal and pathological anatomy of the heart and coronary arteries are nowadays widely developed topics and constitute a fundamental part of the cultural background of the radiologist. The introduction of cardiac ECG-gated synchronized CT scanners with an ever-increasing number of detectors and with increasingly high structural characteristics (increase in temporal resolution, increase in contrast resolution with dual-source, dual energy scanners) allows the virtual measurement of anatomical in vivo structures complying with heart rate with submillimetric precision permitting to clearly depict the normal anatomy and follow the pathologic temporal evolution. Accordingly to these considerations, cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) asserts itself as a gold standard method for the anatomical evaluation of the heart and permits to evaluate, verify, measure and characterize structural pathological alterations of both congenital and acquired degenerative diseases. Accordingly, CCTA is increasingly used as a prognostic model capable of modifying the outcome of diseased patients in planning interventions and in the post-surgical/interventional follow-up. The profound knowledge of cardiac anatomy and function through highly detailed CCTA analysis is required to perform an efficient and optimal use in real-world clinical practice.