Cardiac outflow tract: A review of some embryogenetic aspects of the conotruncal region of the heart

Angelo Restivo, Gerardo Piacentini, Silvia Placidi, Claudia Saffirio, Bruno Marino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

A review concerning some embryogenetic aspects of the cardiac outflow tract is presented. Two main topics are discussed: the truncal septation and the secondary heart field. In the context of the septation of the truncus arteriosus, the development of the arterial valves is largely discussed, particularly in reference to the sinuses of Valsalva. Emphasis is also given to the fate of the external myocardial wall of the truncus arteriosus, as this primordial myocardial surface disappears later in the development. Molecular genetics data concerning Sox4 and NF-Atc transcription factors are correlated in the present review with rare forms of truncus malformations encountered in human pathology. The roles exerted by the secondary heart field and the neural crest on the development and growth of the conotruncal musculature are largely discussed. Reported experimental ablations of both secondary heart field and neural crest, showed conotruncal defects such as persistent truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle, which were considered as the result of a short outflow tract causing, ultimately, a lack of conotruncal rotation. In this regard, some morphologic correlations are carried out, in the present review, between these experimental animal models and human malformations, and it is thought that this sort of conotruncal defects cannot be explained always in terms of conotruncal hypoplasia. Finally, influence of Pitx2c, a left-right laterality signaling gene, on the modulation of the conotruncal rotation, as most recently reported, is emphasized in terms of very likely multifactorial contributions in the embryogenesis of the conotruncal region of the heart.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)936-943
Number of pages8
JournalAnatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology
Volume288
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2006

Fingerprint

defect
outflow
heart
Truncus Arteriosus
neural crest
Neural Crest
growth and development
ablation
Persistent Truncus Arteriosus
Double Outlet Right Ventricle
Sinus of Valsalva
Tetralogy of Fallot
gene
animal
sinuses
Growth and Development
molecular genetics
Embryonic Development
laboratory animals
Molecular Biology

Keywords

  • Conotruncus
  • Neural crest
  • Outflow tract
  • Secondary heart field
  • Truncal septation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Anatomy

Cite this

Cardiac outflow tract : A review of some embryogenetic aspects of the conotruncal region of the heart. / Restivo, Angelo; Piacentini, Gerardo; Placidi, Silvia; Saffirio, Claudia; Marino, Bruno.

In: Anatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 288, No. 9, 09.2006, p. 936-943.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{45eef0b87f99462a9f8ec110bdd8a94f,
title = "Cardiac outflow tract: A review of some embryogenetic aspects of the conotruncal region of the heart",
abstract = "A review concerning some embryogenetic aspects of the cardiac outflow tract is presented. Two main topics are discussed: the truncal septation and the secondary heart field. In the context of the septation of the truncus arteriosus, the development of the arterial valves is largely discussed, particularly in reference to the sinuses of Valsalva. Emphasis is also given to the fate of the external myocardial wall of the truncus arteriosus, as this primordial myocardial surface disappears later in the development. Molecular genetics data concerning Sox4 and NF-Atc transcription factors are correlated in the present review with rare forms of truncus malformations encountered in human pathology. The roles exerted by the secondary heart field and the neural crest on the development and growth of the conotruncal musculature are largely discussed. Reported experimental ablations of both secondary heart field and neural crest, showed conotruncal defects such as persistent truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle, which were considered as the result of a short outflow tract causing, ultimately, a lack of conotruncal rotation. In this regard, some morphologic correlations are carried out, in the present review, between these experimental animal models and human malformations, and it is thought that this sort of conotruncal defects cannot be explained always in terms of conotruncal hypoplasia. Finally, influence of Pitx2c, a left-right laterality signaling gene, on the modulation of the conotruncal rotation, as most recently reported, is emphasized in terms of very likely multifactorial contributions in the embryogenesis of the conotruncal region of the heart.",
keywords = "Conotruncus, Neural crest, Outflow tract, Secondary heart field, Truncal septation",
author = "Angelo Restivo and Gerardo Piacentini and Silvia Placidi and Claudia Saffirio and Bruno Marino",
year = "2006",
month = "9",
doi = "10.1002/ar.a.20367",
language = "English",
volume = "288",
pages = "936--943",
journal = "Anatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology",
issn = "0003-276X",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "9",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiac outflow tract

T2 - A review of some embryogenetic aspects of the conotruncal region of the heart

AU - Restivo, Angelo

AU - Piacentini, Gerardo

AU - Placidi, Silvia

AU - Saffirio, Claudia

AU - Marino, Bruno

PY - 2006/9

Y1 - 2006/9

N2 - A review concerning some embryogenetic aspects of the cardiac outflow tract is presented. Two main topics are discussed: the truncal septation and the secondary heart field. In the context of the septation of the truncus arteriosus, the development of the arterial valves is largely discussed, particularly in reference to the sinuses of Valsalva. Emphasis is also given to the fate of the external myocardial wall of the truncus arteriosus, as this primordial myocardial surface disappears later in the development. Molecular genetics data concerning Sox4 and NF-Atc transcription factors are correlated in the present review with rare forms of truncus malformations encountered in human pathology. The roles exerted by the secondary heart field and the neural crest on the development and growth of the conotruncal musculature are largely discussed. Reported experimental ablations of both secondary heart field and neural crest, showed conotruncal defects such as persistent truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle, which were considered as the result of a short outflow tract causing, ultimately, a lack of conotruncal rotation. In this regard, some morphologic correlations are carried out, in the present review, between these experimental animal models and human malformations, and it is thought that this sort of conotruncal defects cannot be explained always in terms of conotruncal hypoplasia. Finally, influence of Pitx2c, a left-right laterality signaling gene, on the modulation of the conotruncal rotation, as most recently reported, is emphasized in terms of very likely multifactorial contributions in the embryogenesis of the conotruncal region of the heart.

AB - A review concerning some embryogenetic aspects of the cardiac outflow tract is presented. Two main topics are discussed: the truncal septation and the secondary heart field. In the context of the septation of the truncus arteriosus, the development of the arterial valves is largely discussed, particularly in reference to the sinuses of Valsalva. Emphasis is also given to the fate of the external myocardial wall of the truncus arteriosus, as this primordial myocardial surface disappears later in the development. Molecular genetics data concerning Sox4 and NF-Atc transcription factors are correlated in the present review with rare forms of truncus malformations encountered in human pathology. The roles exerted by the secondary heart field and the neural crest on the development and growth of the conotruncal musculature are largely discussed. Reported experimental ablations of both secondary heart field and neural crest, showed conotruncal defects such as persistent truncus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and double-outlet right ventricle, which were considered as the result of a short outflow tract causing, ultimately, a lack of conotruncal rotation. In this regard, some morphologic correlations are carried out, in the present review, between these experimental animal models and human malformations, and it is thought that this sort of conotruncal defects cannot be explained always in terms of conotruncal hypoplasia. Finally, influence of Pitx2c, a left-right laterality signaling gene, on the modulation of the conotruncal rotation, as most recently reported, is emphasized in terms of very likely multifactorial contributions in the embryogenesis of the conotruncal region of the heart.

KW - Conotruncus

KW - Neural crest

KW - Outflow tract

KW - Secondary heart field

KW - Truncal septation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33748112969&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33748112969&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/ar.a.20367

DO - 10.1002/ar.a.20367

M3 - Article

C2 - 16892424

AN - SCOPUS:33748112969

VL - 288

SP - 936

EP - 943

JO - Anatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology

JF - Anatomical Record - Part A Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology

SN - 0003-276X

IS - 9

ER -