Cardiac syndrome X: A critical overview and future perspectives

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The classic definition of cardiac syndrome X (CSX) seems inadequate both for clinical and research purposes and should be replaced with one aimed at including a sufficiently homogeneous group of patients with the common plausible pathophysiological mechanism of coronary microvascular dysfunction. More specifically, CSX should be defined as a form of stable effort angina, which, according to careful diagnostic investigation, can reasonably be attributed to abnormalities in the coronary microvascular circulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)159-166
Number of pages8
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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