Increasing age and new trends of mixed populations have newly aroused interest in valvular heart disease in the developed countries still in need of new clinical insights. In the clinical setting of systemic diseases, the proper assessment of cardiovascular abnormalities may be challenging, and the characterization of valvular involvement might help to recognize the underlying disease and cardiac sequelae. Prompt identification of valvular lesions may, therefore, also be useful for differential diagnosis. This article reviews the cardiac involvement in systemic diseases from etiology and background definition to echocardiographic assessment and clinical interpretation. The authors have no funding, financial relationships, or conflicts of interest to disclose.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine