Cardio-ankle vascular index is associated with diabetic retinopathy in younger than 70 years patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Olga Lamacchia, Maria Rosaria Sorrentino, Giuseppe Picca, Matteo Paradiso, Pasquale Maiellaro, Salvatore De Cosmo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Caucasian patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 299 T2DM patients admitted to Endocrine Unit of Foggia. DR was diagnosed using the International Clinical Disease Severity Scale of American Academy of Ophthalmology. The VaSera VS-1500N was used to measure CAVI. Because age is the most powerful determinant of arterial stiffness and affects the progression of DR, we divided the whole sample into two subgroups: above (older) and below (younger) 70 years. Results: The mean age of patients was 60.4 ± 12.6 years and the mean CAVI value was 8.6 ± 1.7. In the whole population DR was diagnosed in 74 (24.7%) patients. CAVI value was clearly higher in patients with DR (9.5 ± 1.6) than in those without (8.7 ± 1.7) (P = 0.001) although this difference was not any more significant when adjusted by age and gender (P = 0.067). In the multivariate model taking into account several possible confounders, the correlation between DR and CAVI remained significant only in younger subjects. In the same subgroup we found a significant association between the stages of DR and CAVI (p = 0.019 adjusted by age and gender). Conclusions: This study shows that CAVI is significantly higher in younger patients with DR than in those without, with a relationship between the stages of DR and CAVI in the same subgroup. Physicians should pay attention to sub-clinical macroangiopathy in younger T2DM patients who have DR.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107793
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2019


  • Arterial stiffness
  • Cardio-ankle vascular index
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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