Lamin A/C gene mutations can be associated with cardiac diseases, usually referred to as "cardiolaminopathies" characterized by arrhythmic disorders and/or left ventricular or biventricular dysfunction up to an overt picture of heart failure. The phenotypic cardiac manifestations of laminopathies are frequently mixed in complex clinical patterns and specifically may include bradyarrhythmias (sinus node disease or atrioventricular blocks), atrial arrhythmias (atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, atrial standstill), ventricular tachyarrhythmias and heart failure of variable degrees of severity. Family history, physical examination, laboratory findings (specifically serum creatine phosphokinase values) and ECG findings are often important "red flags" in diagnosing a "cardiolaminopathy". Sudden arrhythmic death, thromboembolic events or stroke and severe heart failure requiring heart transplantation are the most dramatic complications of the evolution of cardiolaminopathies and appropriate risk stratification is clinically needed combined with clinical follow-up. Treatment with cardiac electrical implantable devices is indicated in case of bradyarrhythmias (implant of a device with pacemaker functions), risk of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (implant of an ICD) or in case of heart failure with wide QRS interval (implant of a device for cardiac resynchronization). New technologies introduced in the last 5 years can help physicians to reduce device-related complications, thanks to the extension of device longevity and availability of leadless pacemakers or defibrillators, to be implanted in appropriately selected patients. An improved knowledge of the complex pathophysiological pathways involved in cardiolaminopathies and in the determinants of their progression to more severe forms will help to improve clinical management and to better target pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments.
- Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
- Heart failure
- Lamin A/C
- Sudden cardiac death