We report a prospective study performed over a 9 year period in 96 children with Kawasaki disease (mean age 35 +/- 29 months), 84 of whom <5 years of age. The male/female ratio was 1.5 (57/39). A total of 38 patients had cardiac involvement, including flattened T waves in the ECG (10 patients), pericardial effusion (6 patients), myocarditis (1 patient), and coronary artery aneurysms (25 patients; frequency of aneurysms: 26%). All patients were evaluated during the acute phase (first month) of the illness. The first echocardiographic examination was performed 15 days (range 4.30 days) from the appearance of fever, and coronary aneurysms were observed in 23 patients; in 2 patients, however, aneurysms appeared later (2 and 6 months). Aneurysms were small (<or = 4.5 mm) in 12, medium (4.5-7 mm) in 11, and large (> 7 mm) in 12 patients. Male sex (p = 0.02), age <12 months (p = 0.005), ESR (p = 0.001), platelet count (p = 0.009), and pericardial effusion (p = 0.02) were significantly related to the presence of aneurysm. Among females, incidence of aneurysms was significantly higher in infants <12 months than in older patients (60 vs 6%, p <0.001). Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment was started early (within 10 days) in 61 patients and late (> 10 days) in 22. Compared to late treatment, early i.v. immunoglobulin treatment was associated with smaller aneurysms and higher regression rate (67 vs 28%, p <0.05). No difference was observed concerning frequency and number of dilated vessels as related to therapeutical regimens. Total i.v. immunoglobulin dose (2 g/kg) was administered over 1-2 days in 26 patients (scheme I) or over 4-5 days in 58 (scheme II). Frequency of aneurysms was significantly lower in patients treated early (p = 0.02). No myocardial infarctions or deaths occurred at short- or long-term follow-up.
|Translated title of the contribution||Cardiovascular abnormalities in Kawasaki disease. An Italian prospective study|
|Number of pages||8|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine