Cardiovascular and noncardiovascular comorbidities in patients with chronic heart failure

Marco Metra, Valerio Zacà, Gianfranco Parati, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, Maria Bonadies, Marco Ciccone, Alessandra Dei Cas, Massimo Iacoviello, Rocco Lagioia, Carolina Lombardi, Raffaele Maio, Damiano Magrì, Giuseppe Musca, Margherita Padeletti, Francesco Perticone, Natalia Pezzali, Massimo Piepoli, Angela Sciacqua, Luisa Zanolla, Savina NodariPasquale Perrone Filardi, Livio Dei Cas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A broad spectrum of concomitant disorders may complicate heart failure adding further morbidity and mortality risk. Comorbidities may be subdivided into cardiovascular and noncardiovascular. The first group includes hypertension, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, arrhythmias and valvular heart disease. Noncardiovascular comorbidities include respiratory, endocrine, metabolic, nutritional, renal, hematopoietic, neurological as well as musculoskeletal conditions. In recent years, advances in the treatment of heart failure have not been attended by important changes in management of its comorbidities. They now seem to be major causes of the poor prognosis of heart failure patients. In this review we provide an updated summary of the epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical characteristics of comorbidities as well as their potential impact for heart failure treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-84
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2011


  • chronic heart failure
  • comorbidities
  • prognosis
  • therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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