Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

Ferrán Catalá-López, Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, Diana González-Bermejo, Giuseppe M. Rosano, Barry R. Davis, Manuel Ridao, Abel Zaragoza, Dolores Montero-Corominas, Aurelio Tobías, César de la Fuente-Honrubia, Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Brian Hutton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings: Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with respect to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, hospitalization for heart failure, ESRD, or doubling serum creatinine. Findings were limited by the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the included studies. Potential inconsistency was identified in network meta-analyses of stroke and angina pectoris, limiting the conclusiveness of findings for these single endpoints. Conclusions: In adults with diabetes, comparisons of different RAS blockers showed similar effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Compared with monotherapies, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB failed to provide significant benefits on major outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the balance between benefits, costs, and potential harms with individual diabetes patients before starting treatment. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014014404

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere1001971
JournalPLoS Medicine
Volume13
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2016

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Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists
Medical problems
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Diabetes Mellitus
Kidney
Renin
Angina Pectoris
Chronic Kidney Failure
Disease Progression
Mortality
Creatinine
Hospitalization
Heart Failure
Stroke
Odds Ratio
Myocardial Infarction
Network Meta-Analysis
Composite materials
Serum
PubMed

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus : A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses. / Catalá-López, Ferrán; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; González-Bermejo, Diana; Rosano, Giuseppe M.; Davis, Barry R.; Ridao, Manuel; Zaragoza, Abel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores; Tobías, Aurelio; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Hutton, Brian.

In: PLoS Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 3, e1001971, 01.03.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Catalá-López, F, Macías Saint-Gerons, D, González-Bermejo, D, Rosano, GM, Davis, BR, Ridao, M, Zaragoza, A, Montero-Corominas, D, Tobías, A, de la Fuente-Honrubia, C, Tabarés-Seisdedos, R & Hutton, B 2016, 'Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses', PLoS Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, e1001971. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001971
Catalá-López, Ferrán ; Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego ; González-Bermejo, Diana ; Rosano, Giuseppe M. ; Davis, Barry R. ; Ridao, Manuel ; Zaragoza, Abel ; Montero-Corominas, Dolores ; Tobías, Aurelio ; de la Fuente-Honrubia, César ; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael ; Hutton, Brian. / Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus : A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses. In: PLoS Medicine. 2016 ; Vol. 13, No. 3.
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abstract = "Background: Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings: Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95{\%} credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95{\%} CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95{\%} CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95{\%} CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95{\%} CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95{\%} CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95{\%} CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95{\%} CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with respect to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, hospitalization for heart failure, ESRD, or doubling serum creatinine. Findings were limited by the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the included studies. Potential inconsistency was identified in network meta-analyses of stroke and angina pectoris, limiting the conclusiveness of findings for these single endpoints. Conclusions: In adults with diabetes, comparisons of different RAS blockers showed similar effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Compared with monotherapies, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB failed to provide significant benefits on major outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the balance between benefits, costs, and potential harms with individual diabetes patients before starting treatment. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014014404",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes of Renin–Angiotensin System Blockade in Adult Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

T2 - A Systematic Review with Network Meta-Analyses

AU - Catalá-López, Ferrán

AU - Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego

AU - González-Bermejo, Diana

AU - Rosano, Giuseppe M.

AU - Davis, Barry R.

AU - Ridao, Manuel

AU - Zaragoza, Abel

AU - Montero-Corominas, Dolores

AU - Tobías, Aurelio

AU - de la Fuente-Honrubia, César

AU - Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael

AU - Hutton, Brian

PY - 2016/3/1

Y1 - 2016/3/1

N2 - Background: Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings: Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with respect to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, hospitalization for heart failure, ESRD, or doubling serum creatinine. Findings were limited by the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the included studies. Potential inconsistency was identified in network meta-analyses of stroke and angina pectoris, limiting the conclusiveness of findings for these single endpoints. Conclusions: In adults with diabetes, comparisons of different RAS blockers showed similar effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Compared with monotherapies, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB failed to provide significant benefits on major outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the balance between benefits, costs, and potential harms with individual diabetes patients before starting treatment. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014014404

AB - Background: Medications aimed at inhibiting the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) have been used extensively for preventing cardiovascular and renal complications in patients with diabetes, but data that compare their clinical effectiveness are limited. We aimed to compare the effects of classes of RAS blockers on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in adults with diabetes. Methods and Findings: Eligible trials were identified by electronic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1 January 2004 to 17 July 2014). Interventions of interest were angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct renin (DR) inhibitors. The primary endpoints were cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke—singly and as a composite endpoint, major cardiovascular outcome—and end-stage renal disease [ESRD], doubling of serum creatinine, and all-cause mortality—singly and as a composite endpoint, progression of renal disease. Secondary endpoints were angina pectoris and hospitalization for heart failure. In all, 71 trials (103,120 participants), with a total of 14 different regimens, were pooled using network meta-analyses. When compared with ACE inhibitor, no other RAS blocker used in monotherapy and/or combination was associated with a significant reduction in major cardiovascular outcomes: ARB (odds ratio [OR] 1.02; 95% credible interval [CrI] 0.90–1.18), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.79–1.19), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (1.32; 95% CrI 0.96–1.81), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.00; 95% CrI 0.73–1.38). For the risk of progression of renal disease, no significant differences were detected between ACE inhibitor and each of the remaining therapies: ARB (OR 1.10; 95% CrI 0.90–1.40), ACE inhibitor plus ARB (0.97; 95% CrI 0.72–1.29), DR inhibitor plus ACE inhibitor (0.99; 95% CrI 0.65–1.57), and DR inhibitor plus ARB (1.18; 95% CrI 0.78–1.84). No significant differences were showed between ACE inhibitors and ARBs with respect to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, angina pectoris, hospitalization for heart failure, ESRD, or doubling serum creatinine. Findings were limited by the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of the included studies. Potential inconsistency was identified in network meta-analyses of stroke and angina pectoris, limiting the conclusiveness of findings for these single endpoints. Conclusions: In adults with diabetes, comparisons of different RAS blockers showed similar effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on major cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Compared with monotherapies, the combination of an ACE inhibitor and an ARB failed to provide significant benefits on major outcomes. Clinicians should discuss the balance between benefits, costs, and potential harms with individual diabetes patients before starting treatment. Review registration: PROSPERO CRD42014014404

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