Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection affects 36.7 million people worldwide, it accounted for 1.1 million deaths in 2015. The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been associated with a decrease in HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, there are increasing concerns about long-lasting effects of chronic inflammation and immune activation, leading to premature aging and HIV-related mortality. Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, are among the leading causes of death in HIV-infected patients, accounting for up to 15% of total deaths in high income countries. Furthermore, as cART availability expands to low-income countries, the burden of cardiovascular related mortality is likely to rise. Hence, over the next decade HIV-associated cardiovascular disease burden is expected to increase globally. In this review, we summarize our understanding of the pathogenesis and risk factors associated with HIV infection and cardiovascular disease, in particular coronary artery disease. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.