Cardiovascular disease in women, is it different to men? The role of sex hormones

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Cardiovascular disease in women differs in clinical presentation, pathophysiology and prognosis from that in men. The role of estrogens and androgens may help explain such sex dimorphisms, being involved in cardiac function, endothelial function and vascular tone. In particular, the cardioprotective effect of estrogen replacement therapy is observed in postmenopausal women in a time-dependent manner, i.e. when it is initiated at their first menopausal symptoms. Postmenopausal women, beyond aged men, may also benefit from testosterone supplementation therapy. Testosterone has been found to be an effective and safe therapy for elderly women with chronic heart failure. However, further studies are needed to clarify doses and routes of administration of androgens in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-128
Number of pages4
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 4 2017


  • Cardiovascular disease
  • gender
  • sex hormones
  • women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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