Congenital heart defects (CHD) are a heterogeneous entity, representing the most common malformations in the fetal and neonatal period. The incidence of moderate to severe structural CHD that will require expert cardiologic care is 2.5 to 3 per 1000 live births. Moderately severe forms of CHD probably account for another 3 per 1000 live births. Specialised cardiologic care is not needed for most minor forms of CHD, such as tiny ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial septal defect (ASD) . Most infants with congenital heart disease are identified by the end of neonatal period.
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