Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is a cardiac hormone belonging to the family of natriuretic peptides (NPs). ANP exerts diuretic, natriuretic, and vasodilatory effects that contribute to maintain water-salt balance and regulate blood pressure. Besides these systemic properties, ANP displays important pleiotropic effects in the heart and in the vascular system that are independent of blood pressure regulation. These functions occur through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Previous works examining the cardiac phenotype of loss-of-function mouse models of ANP signaling showed that both mice with gene deletion of ANP or its receptor natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A) developed cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in response to pressure overload and chronic ischemic remodeling. Conversely, ANP administration has been shown to improve cardiac function in response to remodeling and reduces ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. ANP also acts as a pro-angiogenetic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic factor in the vascular system. Pleiotropic effects regarding brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were also reported. In this review, we discuss the current evidence underlying the pleiotropic effects of NPs, underlying their importance in cardiovascular homeostasis.