Cardiovascular risk factors in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes in Italy: a multicentric observational study

Elena Fornari, Claudia Piona, Ivana Rabbone, Francesca Cardella, Enza Mozzillo, Barbara Predieri, Donatella Lo Presti, Valentino Cherubini, Ippolita Patrizia Patera, Tosca Suprani, Riccardo Bonfanti, Vittoria Cauvin, Fortunato Lombardo, Stefano Zucchini, Angela Zanfardino, Elisa Giani, Petra Reinstadler, Nicola Minuto, Raffaele Buganza, Rosalia RoppoloMarco Marigliano, Claudio Maffeis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and to identify the variables associated with CVRFs in a cohort of children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. Methods: 2021 subjects, 2-18 year-old, were recruited in 17 Italian Pediatric Diabetes Centers. Anthropometric, blood pressure, biochemical (HbA1c, lipid profile, ACR), insulin therapy, physical activity level, smoking and family socio-economic status data were collected. CVRFs prevalence and their distribution were analyzed according to age and binary logistic regression was performed with positivity for at least one major CVRF (BMI-SDS > +2SD, blood pressure > 90th percentile, LDL cholesterol>100 mg/dL) as dependent variable and age, duration of illness, gender, HbA1c and physical activity, as independent variables. Results: The prevalence of CVFRs not at the recommended target was respectively: 32.5% one CVRF, 6.7% two CVRFs and 0.6% three CVRFs, with no significant differences across the 3 age groups (2-10, 10-15, 15-18 years). In the total sample, HbA1c and inadequate physical activity were associated with a higher probability of having at least one major CVRF. This probability was associated with physical activity in the 2-10-year-old group, with physical activity and HbA1c in the 10-15-year-old group and with HbA1c only in subjects older than 15 years. Conclusions: More than 30% of subjects had at least a major CVRF. Early detection of CVRFs may be useful to enforce the therapeutic intervention in this subgroup, in order to reduce the risk to develop cardiovascular complications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1546-1555
Number of pages10
JournalPediatric Diabetes
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2020


  • adolescents
  • cardiovascular risk
  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • children
  • type 1 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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