Aims: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and to identify the variables associated with CVRFs in a cohort of children and adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. Methods: 2021 subjects, 2-18 year-old, were recruited in 17 Italian Pediatric Diabetes Centers. Anthropometric, blood pressure, biochemical (HbA1c, lipid profile, ACR), insulin therapy, physical activity level, smoking and family socio-economic status data were collected. CVRFs prevalence and their distribution were analyzed according to age and binary logistic regression was performed with positivity for at least one major CVRF (BMI-SDS > +2SD, blood pressure > 90th percentile, LDL cholesterol>100 mg/dL) as dependent variable and age, duration of illness, gender, HbA1c and physical activity, as independent variables. Results: The prevalence of CVFRs not at the recommended target was respectively: 32.5% one CVRF, 6.7% two CVRFs and 0.6% three CVRFs, with no significant differences across the 3 age groups (2-10, 10-15, 15-18 years). In the total sample, HbA1c and inadequate physical activity were associated with a higher probability of having at least one major CVRF. This probability was associated with physical activity in the 2-10-year-old group, with physical activity and HbA1c in the 10-15-year-old group and with HbA1c only in subjects older than 15 years. Conclusions: More than 30% of subjects had at least a major CVRF. Early detection of CVRFs may be useful to enforce the therapeutic intervention in this subgroup, in order to reduce the risk to develop cardiovascular complications.
- cardiovascular risk
- cardiovascular risk factors
- type 1 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism