Cardiovascular risk in advanced naïve HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy: Comparison of three different regimens - PREVALEAT II cohort

Paolo Maggi, Chiara Bellacosa, Armando Leone, Anna Volpe, Elena Delfina Ricci, Nicoletta Ladisa, Stefania Cicalini, Elisabetta Grilli, Rosaria Viglietti, Antonio Chirianni, Lara Ines Bellazzi, Renato Maserati, Canio Martinelli, Paola Corsi, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Federica Sozio, Gioacchino Angarano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and aims PREVALEAT (PREmature VAscular LEsions and Antiretroviral Therapy) II is a multicenter, longitudinal cohort study aimed at the evaluation of cardiovascular risk among advanced HIV-positive, treatment-naïve patients starting their first therapy. We hypothesized that these patients, present a higher cardiovascular (CV) risk. Methods The study included all consecutive naïve patients with less than 200 CD4 cells/ml starting antiretroviral therapy. Our primary objective was to evaluate changes in carotid intima- media thickness (IMT). Secondary endpoints included changes in flow mediated vasodilation (FMD), inflammatory markers, triglycerides and cholesterol. Patients were evaluated at time 0, and after 3, 6 and 12 months. Results We enrolled 119 patients, stratified into three different groups: patients receiving atazanavir/ritonavir boosted (ATV/r) based regimens, efavirenz (EFV) based regimens and darunavir/ritonavir boosted (DRV/r) based regimens. At baseline, advanced naïve patients showed a relevant deterioration of CV conditions in terms of traditional CV risk factors, endothelial dysfunction and serum biomarkers. During the 12-month follow up period, mean blood lipids significantly increased: total cholesterol from 159 to 190 mg/dL, HDL-C from 31 to 41 mg/dL, and LDL-C from 99 to 117 mg/dL. D-dimers steadily decreased (median level 624 at baseline and 214 at T3), whereas ICAM and VCAM consistently raised. DRV/r and ATV/r determined a more marked decrease of D-dimers as compared to EFV. Regarding the epi-aortic changes (IMT >1 mm or presence of atherosclerotic plaques), patients in the DRV/r group were at risk of developing pathological IMT during the study (OR 6.0, 95% CI 0.9–36.9), as compared to EFV ones. Conclusions CV risk was elevated in advanced naïve patients and tended to remain high in the first year of therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-404
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2017


  • Atazanavir
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Darunavir
  • Efavirenz
  • HIV

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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