Carotenoids in Age-related maculopathy Italian study (CARMIS): Two-year results of a randomized study

Stefano Piermarocchi, Sandro Saviano, Vincenzo Parisi, Massimiliano Tedeschi, Giacomo Panozzo, Giuseppe Scarpa, Giorgio Boschi, Giuseppe Lo Giudice

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose. The high concentration of carotenoids in the macula, plus evidence linking oxidative stress to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and carotenoids to antioxidation, generated the hypothesis that higher antioxidant intakes can prevent AMD. The aim of this study was to determine whether nutritional supplementation with a targeted nutritional supplement improves visual acuity and visual function in AMD. Methods. In this multicenter, prospective open-label randomized study, 145 patients were randomly assigned to 2 different treatment groups. Interventions were lutein (10 mg), zeaxanthin (1 mg), astaxanthin (4 mg; AZYR SIFI, Catania, Italy), and antioxidants/vitamins supplementation formula or no dietary supplementation for 2 years. Primary outcome was mean changes in visual acuity (VA) at 12 and 24 months. Other measures included contrast sensitivity (CS) and National Eye Institute visual function questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) scores at 12 and 24 months. Results. Patients in the treated group showed stabilization of VA with significantly (p=0.003) better VA scores (81.4±7.2) compared to the nontreated group (76.8±8.9) at 24-month follow-up. An improvement in CS (p=0.001) and final mean NEI VFQ-25 composite scores at 12 and 24 months higher in treated group compared to nontreated group were also shown (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-225
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


  • Age-related macular degeneration
  • Carotenoids
  • Lutein
  • Macular pigment
  • Zeaxanthin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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