The role of catestatin (CST) in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and myocardial infarction (MI) is poorly elucidated. Due to the implicated role of CST in the regulation of neurohumoral activity, the goals of the study were to determine CST serum levels among ninety consecutively enrolled ADHF patients, with respect to the MI history and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and to examine its association with clinical, echocardiographic, and laboratory parameters. CST levels were higher among ADHF patients with MI history, compared to those without (8.94 ± 6.39 vs. 4.90 ± 2.74 ng/mL, p = 0.001). CST serum levels did not differ among patients with reduced, midrange, and preserved LVEF (7.74 ± 5.64 vs. 5.75 ± 4.19 vs. 5.35 ± 2.77 ng/mL, p = 0.143, respectively). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, CST independently correlated with the NYHA class (β = 0.491, p < 0.001), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (β = -0.237, p = 0.026), HbA1c (β = -0.235, p = 0.027), LDL (β = -0.231, p = 0.029), non-HDL cholesterol (β = -0.237, p = 0.026), hs-cTnI (β = -0.221, p = 0.030), and the admission and resting heart rate (β = -0.201, p = 0.036 and β = -0.242, p = 0.030), and was in positive association with most echocardiographic parameters. In conclusion, CST levels were increased in ADHF patients with MI and were overall associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile but at the same time reflected advanced symptomatic burden (CATSTAT-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03389386).