Infectious complications of the central venous catheter (CVC) are a major source of morbidity among children treated with hemodialysis (HD), with catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) being the most important clinical manifestations. As only a few studies of children on HD have been published, the management of CVC-related infections in this population is mainly based on data derived from adults or occasionally from children not affected by end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The aim of this review is to discuss current knowledge concerning the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of catheter-related infections in children on HD. Catheters impregnated with antibiotics/antiseptics, lock antibiotic prophylaxis, nasal mupirocin, and the application of ointments at the exit-site have all been proposed as means of reducing the risk of CVC infections, but their real efficacy in the pediatric population has not yet been demonstrated. Furthermore, it is not clear how long antibiotic therapy should be continued, and there is still debate as to whether the catheter has to be removed. We propose some practical guidelines for the management of CRBSI in children with percutaneously inserted and surgically implanted HD catheters, but a number of unresolved clinical issues still remain, which will require prospective clinical trials specifically performed in pediatric patients with ESRD.
- Catheter-related infections
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health