Causes and timing of death during long-term follow-up after transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Francesco Saia, Azeem Latib, Cristina Ciuca, Valeria Gasparetto, Massimo Napodano, Alessandro Sticchi, Laura Anderlucci, Cinzia Marrozzini, Toru Naganuma, Ottavio Alfieri, Michela Facchin, Brunilda Hoxha, Carolina Moretti, Antonio Marzocchi, Antonio Colombo, Giuseppe Tarantini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an effective therapeutic option for patients with severe aortic stenosis at high risk for surgery. Identification of causes of death after TAVR may help improve patient selection and outcome.

Methods: We enrolled 874 consecutive patients who underwent TAVR at 3 centers using all approved bioprostheses and different access routes. Clinical outcomes during follow-up were defined according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 definitions. Causes of deaths were carefully investigated.

Results: Mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation was 23.5% ± 15.3%; Society of Thoracic Surgery score, 9.0% ± 8.2%. The Corevalve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) was used in 41.3%; the Edwards Sapien (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, CA) in 57.3%. Vascular access was transfemoral in 75.7%. In-hospital mortality was 5.0%. Cumulative mortality rates at 1 to 3 years were 12.4%, 23.4%, and 31.5%, respectively. Landmark analysis showed a significantly higher incidence of cardiovascular (CV) death in the first 6 months of follow-up and a significantly higher incidence of non-CV death thereafter. At Cox regression analysis, the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were acute kidney injury grades 2 to 3 (hazard ratio [HR] 3.41) life-threatening bleeding (HR 4.26), major bleeding (HR 4.61), and myocardial infarction (HR 3.89). The independent predictors of postdischarge mortality were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR 1.48), left ventricular ejection fraction at discharge (HR 0.98), and glomerular filtration rate 2 (HR 1.64).

Conclusions: Around a third of patients treated with TAVR in daily practice die within the first 3 years of follow-up. Early mortality is predominantly CV, whereas late mortality is mainly non-CV, and it is often due to preexisting comorbidity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)798-806
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Heart Journal
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Medicine(all)


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