Causes and treatments of achalasia, and primary disorders of the esophageal body

Valter Nilton Felix, Kenneth Devault, Roberto Penagini, Alessandra Elvevi, Lee Swanstrom, Eelco Wassenaar, Oscar M. Crespin, Carlos A. Pellegrini, Roy Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The following on achalasia and disorders of the esophageal body includes commentaries on controversies regarding whether patients with complete lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation can be considered to exhibit early achalasia; the roles of different mucle components of the LES in achalasia; sensory neural pathways impaired in achalasia; indications for peroral endoscopic myotomy and advantages of the technique over laparoscopic and thorascopic myotomy; factors contributing to the success of surgical therapy for achalasia; modifications to the classification of esophageal body primary motility disorders in the advent of high-resolution manometry (HRM); analysis of the LES in differentiating between achalasia and diffuse esophageal spasm (DES); and appropriate treatment for DES, nutcracker esophagus (NE), and hypertensive LES (HTLES).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)236-249
Number of pages14
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013


  • Achalasia
  • Esophogastric junction
  • GERD
  • Nutcracker esophagus
  • Relaxation
  • Swallowing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science

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