Caveolae are plasma membrane regions enriched in Caveolin proteins which regulate vesicular transport, endocytosis, and cell signaling. IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) localizes in caveolae and tyrosine phosphorylates Caveolin- 1 (Cav-1), the most represented caveolar protein. Cav-1 participates to IGF-IR internalization and signaling directly interacting with IGF-IR and its substrates. Recently, polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) or Cavin-1, has been identified in the caveolar backbone. PTRF does not play a Cav-1 ancillary role and emerging data support a direct role of PTRF in IGF-IR signaling. PTRF and Cav-1 can bind IGF-IR and regulate IGF-IR internalization and plasma membrane replacement, mechanisms frequently deregulated in cancer cells. Although the exact roles of Cav-1 and IGF-IR in human cancer continue to be a matter of some debate, there is a strong evidence for an association between Cav-1 and IGF-IR in cancer development. With the discovery of IGF-IR interaction with PTRF in caveolae, new insight emerged to understand the growing functions of these domains in IGF-I action.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism