Metformin causes an AMP/ATP ratio increase and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. Since caveolin-1 (Cav-1) plays a role in AMPK activation and energy balance, we investigated whether Cav-1 could participate in metformin's inhibitory effect on IGF1 signaling. The effect of metformin was studied in two non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, Calu-1 and Calu-6, expressing higher and lower amounts of Cav-1, respectively. In Calu-1, but not in Calu-6 cells, metformin reduced phosphorylation of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) substrates Akt and Forkhead transcription factor 3a (FOXO3a), inhibited IGF1-dependent FOXO3a nuclear exit, and decreased IGF1-dependent cell proliferation. Here, we show that sensitivity of NSCLC cells to metformin was dependent on Cav-1 expression and that metformin required Cav-1 to induce AMPK phosphorylation and AMP/ATP ratio increase. Cav-1 silencing in Calu-1 and overexpression in Calu-6 reduced and improved, respectively, the inhibitory effect of metformin on IGF1-dependent Akt phosphorylation. Prolonged metformin treatment in Calu-6 cells induced a dose-dependent expression increase of Cav-1 and OCT1, a metformin transporter. Cav-1 and OCT1 expression was associated with the antiproliferative effect of metformin in Calu-6 cells (IC50=18 mM). In summary, these data suggest that Cav-1 is required for metformin action in NSCLC cells.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology