Previous observations have reported controversial conclusions regarding cell dose and survival endpoints after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We conducted a retrospective analysis on 414 adult patients (median age 54 years, range, 18-74 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first and second complete remission. They received a T-cell replete allogeneic HSCT from haploidentical donors, using peripheral blood stem cells, between 2006-2018. Median number of infused CD34+ was 6.58 × 106/kg (range, 2.2-31.2 × 106/kg). Graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was post-transplant cyclophosphamide in 293 patients and anti-lymphocyte serum in 121 patients. Conditioning was myeloablative in 179 patients and reduced-intensity in 235 patients. After a median follow-up of 23.3 months (range, 12.1-41.8 months), 2-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5% (95% CI 59.3%-69.7%) with leukemia-free survival (LFS) of 57.3% (95% CI 51.8%-62.7%) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) of 23.3% (95% CI 19%-27.7%). Grades III-IV acute GVHD day+100 incidence was 14.6% while extensive chronic GVHD was 14.4% at 2-years. Thirteen (3.2%) patients experienced graft failure. We found the optimal CD34+/kg threshold defining high (n = 334) vs low cell dose (n = 80) at 4.96 × 106. Recipients of >4.96 × 106/kg CD34+ cells experienced less NRM (Hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% CI 0.30-0.76) and prolonged LFS (HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.43-0.91) and OS (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.88) compared to those in the lower cell dose cohort. Larger cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas