HIV-1 infection in humans results in an early and progressive NK cell dysfunction and an accumulation of an "anergic" CD56- CD16+ NK subset, which is characterised by low natural cytotoxicity receptor expression and low cytokine producing capacity. In contrast to humans, chimpanzee NK cells do not display a distinguishable CD56bright and CD56dim subset but, as shown here, could be subdivided into functionally different CD8+ and CD8- subsets. The CD8 + NK cells expressed significantly higher levels of triggering receptors including NKp46 and, upon in vitro activation, produced more IFN-γ, TNF-α and CD107 than their CD8- counterparts. In addition, chimpanzee CD8- NK cells had relatively high levels of HLA-DR expression, suggestive of an activated state. Killing inhibitory receptors were expressed only at low levels; however, upon in vitro stimulation, they were up-regulated in CD8+ but not in CD8- NK cells and were functionally capable of inhibiting NKp30-triggered killing. In contrast to HIV-1-infected humans, infected chimpanzees maintained their dominant CD8+ NK cell population, with high expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors.
- Natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR)
- NK cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy