Bacterial protein toxins, such as Clostridium difficile toxin A and the Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 are known to exert their cytotoxic action via a modification of some cytoskeletal components. The changes in actin organization caused by these toxins appear to be the primary events in the mechanism leading to cell death.
- Clostridium difficile toxin A
- Escherichia coli CNF1
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