[18F]-2-Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) is a glucose analog currently utilized for positron emission tomography imaging studies in humans. FDG taken up by the liver is rapidly released. This property is attributed to elevated glucose-6-phosphatase (Glc-6-Pase) activity. To characterize this issue we studied the relationship between Glc-6-Pase activity and FDG release kinetics in a cell culture system. We overexpressed the Glc-6-Pase catalytic unit in a Glc-6-Pase-deficient mouse hepatocyte (Ho-15) and in A431 tumor cell lines. Glc-6-Pase enzyme activity and FDG release rates were determined in cells transfected with the Glc-6-Pase gene (Ho-15-D3 and A431-AC3), in mock-transfected cells of both cell lines, and in wild-type mouse hepatocytes (WT10) as control. Although the highest level of Glc-6-Pase activity was measured in A431-AC3, Ho-15-D3 cells showed much faster FDG release rates. The faster FDG release correlated with the level of glucose 6-phosphate transporter (Glc-6-PT) mRNA, which was found to be expressed at higher levels in Ho-15 compared with A431 cells. Overexpression of Glc-6-PT in A431-AC3 produced a dramatic increase in FDG release compared with control cells. This study gives the first direct evidence that activity of the Glc-6-Pase complex can be quantified in vivo by measuring FDG release. Adequate levels of Glc-6- Pase catalytic unit and Glc-6-PT are required for this function. FDG-positron emission tomography may be utilized to evaluate functional status of the Glc- 6-Pase complex.
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